Core components of LED soldered to a printed circuit board
A typical LED is made with a chip, which is the semiconductor that produces the light when electrically connected. The chip is connected by a very thin bond wire to a lead electrical contact that acts as the cathode. The chip is bonded with a thermal heat sink and a ceramic base. The chip is enclosed by a lens that not only protects the chip, but also modulates the light beam to the desired angle, depending on the nature of the lens. For production of white light, the chips are coated with phosphors.